In addition to sending individual swatches, you can send an entire five-color palette up to Photoshop's swatch panel. It also provides the RGB, HSB, and hex codes for the individual colors.
Unfortunately, because the iPad lacks even the most rudimentary color calibration, the palette that you've painstakingly created on the iPad looks quite different in Photoshop. Even an iPad color profile in Photoshop to map the values better on that end would help.
Furthermore, you can't pass the swatches on into Eazel, which I believe is a purposeful limitation of iOS.