Chrome on desktops has been able to sync personal data like passwords and online form fields for ages, but the features just landed in the Android version of the browser today.
Chrome 26 for Android (download) brings automatic form filling and password synchonrization to the mobile browser, as well as unnamed performance and stability fixes. The new version of the browser also repairs a problem where a blank page would be shown instead of loading the correct URL.
Some features that made it into the beta version of Chrome 26 for Android don't appear to be in today's stable release. These include server-accelerated browsing using a proxy, Google's SPDY technology, and rudimentary support for Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC).
Unlike many other browsers for Android, including Firefox, Dolphin, and Opera, Chrome is limited to running on Android 4.0 and above. If you've got Ice Cream Sandwich or Jelly Bean, you can install it.
In other related Chrome news, Google has released a Canary version of Chrome OS, which has existed for Chrome-the-browser for some time. Canary is analogous to Firefox's Nightly build -- it's highly experimental and unstable, and subject to near-daily changes.